Events that happen after, or because of, a challenging behavior that help maintain challenging behaviors. Consequences are often social reactions from others, including receiving attention from teachers or caregivers, getting to finish a preferred activity, being released from doing a nonpreferred activity, or being given another toy.[i]

[i] Artman-Meeker, K., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2014). Functional assessment of challenging behaviors. In M. McLean, M. L. Hemmeter, & P. Snyder (Eds.), Essential elements for assessing infants and preschoolers with special needs (pp. 242-270). Boston, MA: Pearson.