Events that happen before and predict or trigger the challenging behavior. Examples include being asked to stop an activity, losing a toy, or being given a direction.[i]

[i] Artman-Meeker, K., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2014). Functional assessment of challenging behaviors. In M. McLean, M. L. Hemmeter, & P. Snyder (Eds.), Essential elements for assessing infants and preschoolers with special needs (pp. 242-270). Boston, MA: Pearson.

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